The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded for pioneering work in financial markets that has transformed portfolio management and asset pricing and launched the study of how emotions affect investment decisions, but their findings have implications far beyond financial markets in risk tolerance. It was awarded to Eugene Fama at the University of Chicago, Lars Peter Hansen also at the University of Chicago, and Robert Shiller of Yale University.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for research that showed how the cell precisely organizes its internal transport system, delivering crucial cargo—substances such as hormones—to the right place at the right time. The discovery has led to better medical diagnostics. It was awarded to James E. Rothman, at Yale University, Randy W. Schekman at the University of California, Berkeley, and Thomas C. Südhof at Stanford University School of Medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for ground work for molecular dynamics simulations which use both classical and quantum physics to understand and predict chemical processes. Their work is the foundation for the computer programs used b chemists today to map the steps in chemical processes. It was awarded to Martin Karplus at the Université de Strasbourg, France and Harvard University; Michael Levitt, at Stanford University, and Arieh Warshel, at the University of Southern California.
The Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded for a theory to explain how particles acquire mass. In 2012, their ideas were dramatically confirmed by the discovery of a Higgs-like particle at the CERN atom-smashing machine in Switzerland. It was awarded to François Englert at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, and Peter Higgs at the University of Edinburgh.
The Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to Alice Munro of Clinton, southwestern Ontario, Canada. She is acclaimed for her storytelling which the Swedish Academy says is characterized by clarity and psychological realism. In its citation for the award the Academy called her “the master of the contemporary short story.”
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